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SK-01 - special-purpose VLA for chemical aerial applications

SK-01 - special-purpose VLA for chemical aerial applications

SK-01 plane was developed as a special-purpose airplane for chemical aerial applications with ultra-fine atomizing. Experience accumulated in operation of existing fleet of very light aircrafts and specifics of chemical aerial legislation and airworthiness standards were taken into consideration.

According to applicable legislation, flying vehicle single prototype (FVSP) belonging to very-light aircrafts (take-off weight below 495 kg) is approved for chemical aerial application, with a special license obtained.

Main planes of this class, which are currently in operation, are:

  • - X-32 Becas (Snipe);
  • - SP-30.

When designing the airplane, we had our development based on expertise of Aeron Aviation Company, Saratov city, which had run commercial chemical operations with these planes for ten years. Experts of Aeron AC had collected critical materials, which became a basis to define requirements to special-purpose VLA for chemical aerial application.

Package requirements to the special-purpose aircraft:

  • most preferable design - high-winged plane;
  • Single-seat cockpit with minimum midsection, providing for comfortable position of pilot and good visibility in maximum number of directions;
  • Plane design must provide for safety of pilot in emergency situations (passive restraint standards);
  • The plane is intended to be operated from poorly prepared ground sites of limited dimension; it must have landing gear with castering nose wheel and separate braking of main wheels.
  • Capacity of chemical tank: 150…170 liters;
  • Capacity of fuel tank ~ 60 liters;
  • Wing span ~ 10 m;

Требования по ЛТХ:

  • Range of running operation speed – 90…120 km/h;
  • Cruising peed in flights -140…150 km/h;
  • Take-off and landing distances - 200 ...250 m;
  • Minimum time of departure check-out and plane service.

Introducing the "SK-01 aircraft”:

General information

Special-purpose SK-01 is a one-seat plane with straight rigidly-braced wing of parasol type. Empennage of classic type with straight strut-braced stabilizer and trapezoidal rudder fin.

Powertrain – single engine ROTAX-912 ULS with tractor rotor.

ROTAX-912 ULS – gasoline, four-stroke, four-cylinder carburation reciprocating engine. The engine has air-cooling system for cylinders and fluid cooling system for cylinder heads.

Propeller is located in high position relative to runway to avoid exposure to grass and objects coming out from the landing gear wheels. Take-off properties of the plane are improved by additional blowing of part of the wing by the propeller.
Landing gears are adjustable lever-action front gear leg with main pyramidal legs equipped with air-oil dampers, equipped with separate-action braking of wheels from pedal unit. Such arrangement of landing gears allows for taking-off form and landing on poorly-prepared sites of limited size, e.g., on ground field roads.

Removable tank for chemicals, with 160-liter capacity, is installed in the lower section of the plane body, integrated in the centerbody structure. Equipment for ultra-fine chemical atomizing is located under the wing on rods.

Airplane package ensures that the crew have comfortable access to and position in the cockpit and good visibility in operational directions. Plane centerbody is made of composite materials providing for sufficient strength, durability and repairability of the structure. Plane cockpit is made of frame reinforcing elements: Two bulkheads connected by longitudinal walls are located in the nose part, cockpit has double reinforced floor, door and window openings have frames of carbon-plastic profile. Cockpit is separated from central body section with a solid bulkhead. Engine is located in the upper front part of cockpit, front mounts of engine frame add to structure rigidness. Pilot’s seat is equipped with four-point safety harness. Such cockpit package ensures that requirements of passive restraint for a pilot in emergency situations are met.

Fights are only allowed in visual meteorological conditions during apparent day, under visual flight rules, out of forecasted icing areas.

The plane can be operated from poorly prepared ground sites of limited dimension with soil strength of at least 4 kgf/cm2

Main characteristics of the airplane:

Maximum takeoff weight, kg 495
Weight of empty equipped plane, kg 320
Fuel weight (60 l), kg 46
Crew, persons 1
Maximum speed of level flight, km/h 150
Running operational speed during chemical atomizing, km/h 90…120
Stall speed with in-flight configuration, km/h 70
Initial climb, m/s 6
Flight distance, km 500
Operational overload range +4.0/ -2 (-0.5 by engine)
Takeoff distance / field length, m 100/200
Landing distance / field length, m 150/250
Range of operational temperatures, °С -25… +50 (by engine)
Wind velocity: - front wind, m/s 15
                       - back wing, m/s 5
                       - side wind, m/s 5
Runway soil strength, kg/cm2 at least 4
Engines Rotax-912 ULS
Power, hp 100
Fuel type 95 RON
Average hourly fuel consumption, l/h 15…17

Plane package version

Basic package version:

  • airframe assy;
  • powertrain: ROTAX-912 ULS engine with two-blade rotor of fied pitch type;
  • control system: Side handle, pedals, mechanical flap deployment, electric pitch trim;
  • landing gears: front gear leg with adjustable wheel, pyramidal main legs, hydraulic separate-action braking system for main wheels;
  • equipment for chemical aerial application: 160-liter tank, hangers for chemical equipment;
  • instrumentation (one set of instruments as per air service rules): speed pointer, climb indicator, altitude display, bank indicator, magnet compass, fuel tank level indicator;
  • cockpit equipment: hard seat for pilot with pilot’s four-point harness, cockpit ventilation with ambient air;
  • plane trim/ decoration: white painting of the plane, grey painting of inner surfaces;
  • operational documentation: Flight Crew Operation Manual, Operation Manual, aircraft log-book, engine log book, components certificates, weighing, rigging and control system adjustment reports.

In addition to the basic equipment package, the plane design can be modified for installation of additional equipment, with a limited set of supplement options.

Supplement options:

  • equipment for chemical aerial application: stands, atomizers, pumps, control instrumentation, hoses, fittings (type and contents of the equipment to be defined by customer);
  • propeller: 3-blade or 4-blade propeller of adjustable pitch;
  • instruments: combined instrument (horizon indicator+compass), radio station (aerial+headset), fuel computer, ampere meter, clock;
  • equipment: self-contained heater unit (cockpit ventilation + heating), lighting equipment (landing headlamp, navigation lights, instrument illumination, cockpit lamps), socket to connect aerodrome- supplied power line;
  • cockpit equipment: soft pilot’s seats, additional cockpit trimming;
  • aerodrome equipment: rudder screw clamps, set of covers, chocks, tool kit for plane and engine;
  • - airplane painting; customized painting, with logos and state license numbers.
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